IT’S BEEN FUN GUYS.

IT'S BEEN FUN GUYS.

Our group has had fun in doing this blog this term and it truly was an experience. I’ve learnt so much and one major thing is that patience is something i need to work on quickly. So guys work on that and don’t be like me. I hope that this has been an eventful time for you and you at least learned something from us here. Keep calm and keep blogging friends. much love.. xoxo 🙂

pRACTICE qUESTIONS :))

Image

So you guys think you know?…Try these out 😀

1. Which of the following is NOT a function of the cytoskeleton?

A. Movement of the cell

B. To keep unwanted substances from entering the cell

C. Internal organization of the cell

D. Structural support

* ANSWER-B

 2.What are the 3 organelles the contain DNA in plant cells?

A. Nucleus, Vacuole, Lysosome

B. Chloroplast, Nucleus, Ribosome

C. Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Cytoskeleton

D.Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Nucleus

E. Golgi Apparatus, Plasma Membrane, Centriole

*ANSWER- D

3.The function(s) of carbohydrates are:

A. Energy source

B. Storage

C. Structure

D. Precursor Molecules

E. As essential nutrients.

         i.      I, II, III

         ii.      I, II, III, IV                                                     

        iii.      I only

        iv.     II, III, V

         v.      I, II, III, IV, V

*ANSWER- ii

 4. Which of the following is TRUE about the functions of proteins?

A. Responsible for the pigment in skin.

B. Involved in the transportation of substances throughout the cell and blood.

C. Acts as insulation.

D. Decrease muscle mass in the body and therefore must be taken in small amounts.

 *ANSWER- B

5. What bonds create a tertiary structure of a protein?

A. Hydrophobic interactions

B. Ionic bonds

C. Disulphide bonds

D. Van der waals forces

E. Hydrogen bonds

        i.  A, B, E

        ii. C, D, E

        iii. A, B, C, D, E

        iv. A, B, C, E

*ANSWER-iv

6. Which one of these is NOT a class of an enzyme?

A. Ligase

B. Transferase

C. Zymogens

D. Isomerase

* ANSWER- C

7. Which one of these statements is FALSE about enzymes?

A. They are biological catalystS

B. They increase the energy of activation for a reaction.

C. They are essential for life to occur.

D. They accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction

 *ANSWER- B

8. The enzyme enolase catalyzes what type of glycolytic reaction?

A. Dehydration reaction

B. Substrate level phosphorylation

C. Oxidation

D. Oxidative phosphorylation

E. Photophosphorylation

 *ANSWER- A

9. Which of the following is/are TRUE about the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle?

I. Between the conversion of Isocitrate to Succinyl-CoA two molecules of NADH and two molecules of CO2 are generated in the presence of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase and α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase.

II. The Kreb’s Cycle generates a total of three molecules of NADH

III. The total net gain of ATP is two.

IV. Fumarate is hydrated breaking its double bond to form maltate.

V. α-Ketoglutarate is reduced to form Succinyl-CoA

           i.            I, II, III, IV and V

           ii.            II, III, IV and V only

          iii.            I, II, III, and IV only

         iv.            I, II and IV only

          v.            None of the above

 *ANSWER- iv

10. Which one of these is a class of lipids?

A. Citrate

B. Lyases

C. Steroids

D. Isozymes

 *ANSWER- C

11. What is a function of lipids?

A. The site of respiration

B. Provides insulation from cold conditions

C. Lowers the activation energy

D. The site for DNA replication

 *ANSWER- B

12. What is DNA?

A. An α-helix composed of proteins

B. A double helix composed of nucleotides

C. A type of RNA

D. None of the above

 *ANSWER-D

YoUtuBe rEvIew

Kobe, Kyle. Nucleic Acids Note. Accessed March 31 2014.

The video that was viewed was about nucleic acids. They are the blueprints for the building of DNA. There are two types of nucleic acids: Ribonucleic acids (RNA), it is a single helix which is one chain of nucleotides and Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), it is a double helix which is two chains of nucleotides. They are composed of nucleotides which bond together to form the nucleic acid polymer, nucleotides are comprised of three parts a sugar molecule, phosphate group and one out of four nitrogenous bases. The four different types of nitrogen bases are Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine, the first letters of each base are used to symbolize them. Erwin Chargaff discovered that Adenine pairs with Thymine and Cytosine pairs with Guanine and this was called Chargaff’s rule, the bonding between each pair holds the double helix by hydrogen bonds. RNA on the other hand has the bases as DNA except in place of Thymine it has Uracil, RNA’s main function is to deliver the instructions from DNA to the ribosome. Nucleotides bind together by a process known as dehydration synthesis, as water is lost when the phosphate group on one nucleotide bonds with the sugar on another nucleotide, a process called hydrolysis reverses the bond of the nucleotides because it adds water.
This sums up the content of the video which was very brief as was a simple introduction to nucleic acids. The video was very informative even though it was just an introduction but it touched on some vital points that would give a person a good foundation to move forward into a more advanced look at nucleic acids. The video also had a good interactive side to it as well were there were questions at intervals of information and at the end it contained a detailed review question sheet to recap the information learnt in the video.

pAPER rEVIEW #2!!! ^.^

Image

Paul, Marla. 2013. “Drug abuse appears to foster brain changes that resemble schizophrenia.” Marijuana Users have Abnormal Brain Structure and Memory. December 16, 2013. Northwestern University. Accessed April 1, 2014. http://www.northwestern.edu/newscenter/stories/2013/12/marijuana-users-have-abnormal-brain-structure–poor-memory.html

Marijuana is an herb that, when crushed, can be used for a variety of purposes such as medicinal ones or purposes related to leisure. I’m sure you all are aware of these uses ;). Marijuana abuse can cause changes in an individual’s brain structure and functions. Brain abnormalities are also associated with persons who suffer from Schizophrenia. Mind blown! Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that is distinguishable by the ill person’s inability to think critically and give appropriate emotional responses to situations. The effects of marijuana abuse and schizophrenia symptoms are therefore directly related. Chronic marijuana abuse can lead to the development of schizophrenia, especially for persons who began abuse at an early age and also for those with a family history of schizophrenia.

Image

Here’s what was found… Brain abnormalities are more discernible the younger the drug abuser begins abuse. This is because those areas in the brain that are related to memory take a different shape compared to the memory-related regions of individuals who do not abuse marijuana. Did you know that our brain can change shape :o? This conformational difference is only because the drug has greater implications on the brain at an earlier stage of brain development. Paul (2013) advocated that marijuana abuse may be hazardous to young individuals who show warning signs of schizophrenia development or persons who have already developed the disorder. I was mystified by the brain’s ability to change shape.

Image.

Abnormalities in the brain as a result of chronic marijuana use were found to resemble abnormalities in the brain as a result of schizophrenia. Such defects are a decrease in neuron amount resulting from brain shrinkage and the inward collapse of the brain and a poor working memory which may lead to deviations in brain functioning. A minimum of 2 years of continuous marijuana use can cause such effects on the brain. Are you users worried as yet? The fact that the brain abnormalities are so similar resulted in some serious day dreaming. Here I am angry with our government for even considering the decriminalization of this drug -_- because I am so sure that we all want a higher percentage of mentally ill citizens -_- -_- -_-.

Image

Once schizophrenia is typical for a particular bloodline, chronic marijuana use would only increase the development of this mental illness. Wait! Do you use marijuana? Go check your bloodline now! After you read this of course XD. On the contrary, the study has shown that 90% of persons with schizophrenia started the drug abuse prior to the development of the disorder. Aren’t you happy you continued reading? It is very important to note, however, that marijuana abusers, regardless of schizophrenia development, express brain abnormalities. Schizophrenic persons just show a greater thalamus (region associated with memory, learning and brain regions communication) deterioration.

This paper was quite thought-provoking. It was enjoyable to read as the facts pointed out here were unusual but very important to know. Now I know that chronic marijuana abuse can lead to schizophrenia development, especially for young persons with a history of schizophrenia.

GLYCO—REVIEW!!! :)

The Salmonella Place. 2012. “Glycolysis.” http://www.SalmonellaPlace.com. November 29, 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zvpbS-t5O1I

Glycolysis is referred to as the metabolic breakdown of one unit of glucose into two units of pyruvate through multiple enzyme catalysed reaction steps (The Salmonella Place 2012). This working definition well explains the overall concept of glycolysis. Let’s think about it! Glycolysis simply means the splitting of one large glucose compound to two smaller ones. i.e. ‘Glyco’ means glucose and ‘lysis’ translates into splitting. Are you excited as yet? You should be! This breakdown occurs in two phases and it is catalysed by ten enzymes.
Here’s what’s up! Glycolysis can be divided into two separate phases. It is separated according to whether ATP (energy currency of the cell) is used or released by the end of each phase. Such phases are the preparatory (energy investment) phase or the payoff (energy generation) phase. In the energy investment phase, ATP is used while in the energy generation phase, ATP is produced. I’m sure you already knew that because you’re smart ;).What I find interesting is that glycolysis is not dependent on the presence of organelles such as mitochondria. It occurs regardless of it’s presence or absence. Cool, huh! It also occurs in the cytosol of the cell.
The ten enzymes that are involved in glycolysis are hexokinase, phosphohexose isomerase, phosphofructokinase-1, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase, glyeraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase and pyruvate kinase. Breathe! These first five enzymes are involved in the preparatory phase while the last five enzymes are involved in the payoff phase. Hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1 and pyruvate kinase catalyse irreversible reactions and the other seven enzymes catalyse reversible reactions.
The ten steps of glycolysis were thoroughly explained in this video. Awesome! Unfortunately for them, phosphofructokinase-1 catalyses the phosphorylation reaction of fructose 6-phosphate and not phosphofructokinase-2. Boo hoo :/ They did, however, highlight that magnesium is the most common cofactor for all these enzymes with the addition of potassium as a cofactor for pyruvate kinase. Another downfall of the video is that it does not differentiate which reactions occur in the different phases. This maybe important to note as a tool for remembering the process.
Well, this video was a bit dreary to be honest. I always thought of glycolysis as an exciting topic but it was quite rigidly put across here :(. Not to mention, the mistakes made. Don’t let this deter you! The Salmonella Place did do a great job in simplifying the topic as much as possible. Thanks… Don’t forget to keep an open mind like yours truly and make learning fun 