METABOLOMICS…

ID NUMBER: 813002622

COURSE CODE: BIOL 2360

METABOLOMICS – EXTRA CREDIT ASSIGNMENT

Metabo-who?

confused face

Metabolomicsssssssssssssssssssssssss…

metab

Metabolomics can be summed up as a new emerging science of ‘omics’ research that uses analytical procedures to critically identify, characterize and quantify small molecules (cellular metabolites) under specific conditions.Spectroscopy and chromatography are the types of analyses employed in the field of metabolomics.

As a result of this emerging field, scientists now have the ability to measure physiological effects and monitor them for adverse reactions to drugs. Metabolomics have lead to our enhanced understanding of disease mechanisms. When coupled with biomarkers, prognosis and diagnosis of diseases become possible.

Biomarkers???

biomarkers12

These are biological features of naturally occurring molecules/ genes/characteristics that are evaluated as indicators of normal biological and pathological processes.Therefore any anomalies with respect to these biomarkers and the abnormal structure and/or functioning are identifiable.

One limitation in this field, however, is the limited number of biomarkers known to scientists. On the contrary, as the years progress, it is predicted that there will be a growing number of biomarkers discovery.

GBIResearch_BiomarkersMarket2421631043

Figure 1: Histogram of expected biomarkers discoveries to be made.

The quickly growing aspect of biomarkers discovery proves a bright future for the metabolomics society. The more discovered biological markers, the more patterns would become available for the comparison of them to metabolites in the body and ultimately the more scientists will have the ability to determine any abnormal structures which would resemble the strucures of particular diseases. That way, diagnosis can occur faster which will result in speedier treatment for patients and perhaps save that patient’s life.

REFERENCE

Bisen, Prakash, S, M, Debnath, G. B. K. S. Prasad. 2012. Microbes: Concepts and Applications.http://books.google.tt/books?id=JICvo_t87x4C&pg=PT167&lpg=PT167&dq=metabolomics+can+lead+to+an+enhanced+understanding+of+disease+mechanisms&source=bl&ots=LmUhyX3K9m&sig=MrmqUEw7v_wOkrOrHCqu66QcpP8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=NoN4VLjQLYKfgwTK1YHoCQ&ved=0CEcQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=metabolomics%20can%20lead%20to%20an%20enhanced%20understanding%20of%20disease%20mechanisms&f=false Accessed November 27, 2014.

Dutton, Gail. 2013. “Metabolomics-Young Field, Bright Future.” http://www.genengnews.com/gen-articles/magazine-preview-metabolomics-young-field-bright-future/4934/ Accessed November 27,2014.

Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M., R. M. Salek, J. L. Griffin, J. Merzaban. 2013. “NMR-based metabolomics in human disease diagnosis: applications, limitations, and recommendations.” http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11306-013-0524-y#page-1

Rouse, Margaret. 2005. “Metabolomics.” http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/metabolomics Accessed November 27, 2014.

HAIRFINITY…ARE THE CLAIMS REALLY TRUE?

ID NUMBER: 813002622

COUSE CODE: BIOL 2360     

SUPPLEMENTS-EXTRA CREDIT ASSIGNMENT

HAIRFINITY…

Does anyone really think that the claims made by Brock Beauty about hairfinity are true?

PICTURE;

hairfinity_4876x3672

MANUFACTURER’S CLAIM;

Manufacturers claim that hairfinity accomplishes the following:

  • Nourishes hair from the inside out,
  • Stimulates faster growing hair,
  • Produces longer, thicker, stronger and more vibrant hair.

oh really baby

ACTIVE INGREDIENTS;

A list of the active ingredients in hairfinity includes:

  • Biotin
  • Niacin (Vitamin B3)
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin B Complex
  • Silica
  • MSM
  • EXCLUSIVE CAPILSANATM COMPLEX

dude omg dog

What in the world am I putting in me? I thought you would have asked that question. Here is an explanation based on biochemistry!

JUSTIFICATION OF MANUFACTURER’S CLAIM;

pillsbiotin structure

Figure 1: Structure of Biotin

Biotin is a water-soluble form of the vitamin B group which is responsible for the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates to release energy. Biotin reacts with cellular enzymes by behaving as a prosthetic group (coenzyme) for carboxylase enzymes. Activation of the carboxylase enzymes occur as a result of the covalent binding of biotin to the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues of the inactive apo-carboxylases via ATP-dependent holo-carboxylase synthetase. The products of such reactions are active holo-carboxylase and ADP and inorganic phosphates. This reaction is as follows:

                                                             Holo-carboxylase synthetase

apo-carboxylases + biotin     →→→→→→→   holo-carboxylases

          (Inactive)                      ↑             ↓              (Active)                                                                                 ATP           ADP +Pi                                                         Finally, biotinyl moiety from the epsilon-amino residues are cleaved by biotinidase which produces free, re-usable biotin. Now the holocarboxylase enzymes catalyse reactions in amino acid synthesis, gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis with amino acids, glucose and fatty acids products respectively. The holocarboxylases cause the production of amino acids, which join together by peptide bonds via condensation reactions to make dipeptides.

peptbond

Figure 2: Condensation reaction showing peptide formation

A series of condensation reactions produce polypeptides. Further lengthening and coiling of these polypeptides produces proteins. One major component of hair is protein. The type of protein found in hair is called keratin. Keratin can therefore be made by biotin. This means that biotin ultimately promotes faster hair growth as an increased intake of biotin in the cell subsequently entails a higher percentage of amino acid production which directly correlates to more protein (keratin) production. Also, the claim that hairfinity nourishes the hair from inside out and produces thicker, stronger and more vibrant hair is also deemed true as biotin affects cellular reactions which produce the keratin in your hair.

biotin cycle 2

Figure 3: Biotin reaction scheme

CONCLUSION;

The claims made by hairfinity’s manufacturers align with the biochemical explanations with respect to biotin. Biotin contributes to hair nourishment and the production of stronger, thicker, more vibrant looking hair as well as the promotion of faster hair growth. This product contains more active ingredients but due to the restrictions of this assignment, only biotin was highlighted. Thank You! Hope you had a good read! ;). Hairfinity…

 goodbye-tears-smiley-emoticonthe end

REFERENCE

Asale, Eshe. 2011. “Vitamins That Double Hair Growth.” http://www.livestrong.com/article/213387-vitamins-that-double-hair-growth/ Accessed November 24, 2014.

Hairfinity. 2014. “Hairfinity”. http://www.hairfinity.com/ingredients.htm. Accessed November 24, 2014.

HairNeedCare. 2014. “Sebum in hair-How to control, what happens When Overproduced.” http://www.hairneedcare.com/how-to-control-sebum-in-hair.html Accessed November 24, 2014.

Nall, Rachel. 2013. “How Does Biotin Make Your Hair Grow faster?” http://www.livestrong.com/article/69844-biotin-make-hair-grow-faster/ Accessed November 24, 2014.

PubMed.gov. 2000. “[Importance of biotin metabolism].” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10846444 Accessed November 24, 2014.

Scheinfeld, S Noah, MD, JD, FAAD.  S B Freilich, MD, M R Mascarenhas, MBBS, M L Windle, PharmD, M P M Poth, MD Jatinder Bhatia, MBBS.http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/984803-overview#a0104 Accessed November 24, 2014.

 

TESTOSTERONE….THE MANLY HORMONE!

Boil 2360 ASSIGNMENT

TESTOSTERONE!!!! DO YOU NEED IT?

1

FIG 1: SHOWIG TESTOSTERONE SUPPLENENT IN DISCUSSION.

2

FIG 2: SOWING NURITIONAL FACTS OF TESTOSTERONE SUPPLEMENTS.

What is testosterone?

large

Testosterone is a male sex hormone (let’s be honest women have it too) important for the reproduction and sexual development of an individual.  Even though women have testosterone levels present it is considerably low compared to men. This anabolic steroid (yes I said steroid) is produced in the testes of men and miniscule amounts in the adrenal glands.  Did you ever wonder why guys go from a squeaky high pitch voice at an early age and then……BAM! Metamorphosis of their voices into this sultry, seductive (for a few) tone. Well don’t live in wonder anymore because they have hormones workig in them. Those devils are tempting us ladies.  This hormone is what trick you into spotting  that  real man. It gives them  that extra boost in muscle mass, bone density and even sex drive. Now you see why they love it.

3

FIG 3: SHOWING THE STRUCTURE OF TESTERONE.

What to supplemental testosterone claim to achieve (alpha JYM)?

Tis supplement gives a man everything he is looking for, or so they claim.  Alpha JYM is this non-proprietary supplement that is different from the rest as it gives the proper dosages that you need of each ingredients in a TEST supplement.  Through five different processes they maintain your body’s natural levels of the hormone.

So what are these processes?

  • Incentive for your body to produce more testosterone.
  • JYM cause blunt estrogen levels aiding TEST production. Also aiding the conversion to DHT using its benefits efficiently.
  • It supports the TEST- producing cells of the testes with antioxidants keeping maxed production.
  • Helps reduce TEST excretion from the body (keep it in man), more for the blood you chick!
  • It releases extra TEST from binding proteins which are not normally used by the body for the body to use in things such as muscle gain and endurance.

So can this work?

xGVi2nK

Biochemical pathway:

5

FIG 4: SHOWING PATHWAY OF TEST ACTION.

Active ingredients in JYM:

  • 100mg Fenugreek extract: this ingredients supports healthy sex drive and TEST levels, as it contains ingredients with stimulate the luteinizing hormone in the testes increasing production of testosterone.
  • 200m Eurycoma Longifolia extract: from the rainforest, this plants has been used to support male virility and sex health.
  • 1000mg Ashwagandha root extract: used in ancient Indian medicine this herb is well known for its adatogenic effects in helping the body deal with stress. It has also been indicated to increase TEST levels.
  • 1000mg Damiana: a shrub native to Mexico and Central and South America has been used in sexual health. It aids healthy TEST production to estrogen balance.
  • 500mg DIM (Diindolymethane): found in naturally occurring plant alkaloid is formed in the digestive tract from indole glucosinate. This has a positive effect on estrogen metabolism.
  • 250mg Quercetin: found in onions, apples etc. is suggested to help boost immunity and boost blood flow to muscles. It supports TEST levels by inhibiting the UGT2B17 enzyme that normally converts TEST to TEST glucuronide. No excretion can occur.

Synthesis, transport and action of testosterone.

The steroid hormone when synthesized is sent into the blood to the male reproductive cells, majority via a binding protein known as the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and the rest freely.

download

The free testosterone is what can be converted to DHT (using 5-alpha reductase) but not aromatase into estradiol. The DHT and testosterone would bind to an androgen receptor (DHT having a greater affinity). Once attached they create a complex and changes shape, which then moves into the nucleus and binds to a particular sequence of DNA called hormone response elements.

ncpuro1296-f1

FIG 5: SHOWING THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF TESTOSTERONE IN THE BODY.

Glucocorticoid mechanism

FIG 6: SHOWING THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF TESTOSTERONE IN THE BODY.

 Conclusion:  Alpha JYM has its benefits in providing all the requirements for testosterone production. There have not yet been and major documented failures from using this product. I’m not male nor ever plan to be so I cannot vouch this product but from research it’s a pretty decent choice.

LATER BIOCHEMIANS….. CHEROME. 🙂

References:

http://tt.bodybuilding.com/store/jym/alpha-jym.html?&_requestid=747486

Alpha JYM TEST supplements. Accessed November 04th 2014.

http://tt.bodybuilding.com/store/goalanabolic.htm?_requestid=755843

Bodybuilding. Accessed November 15th 2014.

http://www.news-medical.net/health/Testosterone-Mechanism.aspx

NewsMedical testosterone mechanism. Accessed 15th November 2014.

The Truth About NUTRIGOLD’s Forskolin Gold!

my colleague did this and i thought it was worth sharing for you guys.. 🙂

chimmeral

(NUTRIGOLD n.d)
(NUTRIGOLD n.d)
(Amazon.com 2014)
(Amazon.com n.d)

Forskolin Gold™ is a herbal weight loss supplement produced by NUTRIGOLD. The product’s active ingredient is Coleus Forskohlii extract. According to NUTRIGOLD the active ingredient of Coleus Forskohlii, which is Forskolin, is what is responsible for the benefits provided by their product.

(coleusforskohlii.org 2013) Coleus Forskohlii, native to Southern Asia (coleusforskohlii.org 2013)

According to NUTRIGOLD the flowchart below represents the way in which Forskolin Gold™ works.  (click image to enlarge)

(NUTRIGOLD 2014) (NUTRIGOLD n.d)

As a Biochemist it is my duty to reveal the truth about Forskolin Gold™ to reveal the truth I must first discover the truth; to discover the truth I must look into the science, if there is any..because we all know that science is the truth (until disproved)

Before we jump right into this we need to know a few things about how the body stores and burns fat.

  1. Fat is stored in adipocytes
  2. Fat is stored…

View original post 731 more words